Some children, when starting to learn literacy (a moment that, on the other hand, begins to be more and more precocious in the educational field), find it difficult to name the letters, begin to make the first connections between them, etc.
These little ones show, almost from the first classes, that they cannot keep up with others. But if these problems are detected early and measures are put in place, in most cases, children will be able to 'jump on the bandwagon' without too much trouble.
These difficulties of which we speak are marked, on many occasions, by poor phonological awareness, basis for the acquisition of reading and writing.
Phonological awareness consists of the ability to associate a sound of oral language (phoneme) to its graphic or written representation (grapheme) and to understand, in addition, that the combination of these graphic signs generates units (syllables) that, in turn, can form more complex ones with a full meaning (words). The ability to have this management is, as we said, key to learning to read and write.
The following tasks are aimed at children being able to manipulate structures by modifying, substituting, omitting, etc. All proposals are oral and the visual or manipulable resources that you want to use will also be useful in them.
1. Word lists
'We are going to say all the words we can think of that begin with the syllable pa, such as: duck'. This activity can be planned from very different formats, such as the well-known 'A ship loaded with ...' has come from Havana. This phrase is used to introduce elements that begin with the syllable or sound that the adult chooses.
2. Human calculator
Count how many syllables a word has or how many words make up a simple sentence.
Discover the syllable that we have omitted in the words that are spoken orally, for example: esca__ras.
4. Syllable thief
Now it is the child who must eliminate the syllable we ask for. Eg: how would the word 'window' sound if we remove the second syllable?
We ask the little one to guess to which word the phonemes we are naming correspond. For example: / s /, / a /, / p /, / o /.
6. Box of syllables
Just as mechanics change the wheels to racing cars, the child must substitute a certain syllable in a word for another that we offer. Eg: how is the word pocket if we change the syllable if for me?
7. Recurring phoneme / syllable
Identify the phoneme or syllable common to two different words. Example: what sound do can and wolf share? or what syllable is the same in the words complete and birthday?
8. Chained words or I see-I see
Two classics ideal for long trips by car, walks on the street, on the way to school, ...
These tasks are fun for our little ones and, even more so, when they are presented as authentic games. Therefore, we encourage you to give them attractive titles and to show a dynamic attitude that invites you to participate.
In the same way, do not forget that positive reinforcement will be essential so that the children are encouraged and want to continue working, because a loving word or encouragement will be the best reward.
In the same way that children can associate a sound from oral language (phoneme) to its graphic or written representation (grapheme), they can also associate images with words. This is the case of pictograms, a way of reading short texts, in a simple and very fun way. On our site we have made some stories with pictograms and we have put them together here:
You can read more articles similar to The key to learning to read and write in children, in the Reading on site category.