From the time children are small, in the first cycle of Early Childhood Education (0-3 years), the development of fine motor skills is encouraged through countless home activities and easy games that allow the strengthening of eye-hand coordination. It is important to work on it, since it is the basis for the next level, children's graphomotor skills, which will be decisive for the initiation to writing of the child.
It would be like climbing steps: fine motor skills would be on the first step, graphomotor skills on the second, and writing on the third and last step.
According to the report 'Motor Disorders' from the New York Department of Health, motor development is the progression that infants and children through which they manage to control the use of their muscles for posture, balance, mobility, as well as the manipulation of the objects with which it interacts.
Once the child has controlled eye-hand coordination, masters the movements and strength of their hands, the rotation of the wrist and is able to perform the 'pincer' with their index fingers and thumb, you are ready to start graphomotor skills.
The graphomotor, corresponds to the type of movement that the boy or girl makes with their hand when writing, drawing or scribbling. At this time, different types of exercises and activities should be considered, such as the ones we propose below, which will help the little ones to develop the prewriting skills.
Around the 16 or 18 months, the boys and girls begin to develop their first traces of graphomotor skills. They execute them freely and randomly, with the help of materials such as continuous paper, sponges, brushes or their own fingers and hands dipped in paint.
These first strokes help coordinate vision with hand movement. Thanks to this, the boy or girl is fascinated and amazed by the colors that appear, and makes it a fantastic resource for these ages.
From 3 years, with the beginning of the second cycle of Early Childhood Education (3-6 years), graphomotor skills are developed in a more rigorous and complex way. The strokes are carried out on paper and the pencil is generally used.
There are different ways to carry out graphomotor skills; depending on the age of the child and their level of psychomotor development:
- For the first ages (from 0 to 3 years old) it is enough with games and activities where they put in continuous move your arms, hands and fingers. In addition to making doodles and nonsensical strokes.
- For ages between 3 and 6 years it begins straight and curved liness. First, the rectilinear lines will be worked: horizontal, vertical, crossed, oblique, cross, etc.
Once this type of stroke is controlled, we move on to the curved type: combined curved, horizontal curved, vertical curved, wave, semicircle, loop, etc.
We can also carry out the tracing of geometric figures to strengthen the rectilinear and curved lines.
There are many activities that we can do to promote and develop graphomotor skills as a prior step to writing. Here are some ideas for children, based on their age and developmental level:
For children from 0 to 3 years old, from the first cycle of Early Childhood Education
1. Make free strokes on flour, rice, sand, etc.
2. Crumple up newspaper.
3. Peel off stickers.
4. Turn the pages of a book.
5. Make strokes and squiggles with finger paint or brushes.
6. Fit and disengage objects or puzzles.
Activities for children from 3 to 5 years old, in the second cycle of Early Childhood Education
7. Perform the spelling of letters and numbers on sand, rice, sugar, etc.
8. Stippling of different geometric shapes.
9. On an already made line, place on it different objects (lentils, chickpeas, buttons, stickers, etc).
10. Move an object on the line, letter or number, for example: with a toy car.
11. Continuation of series with different lines.
12. Labyrinth exercises and match an object that is related to another.
They are activities that at first can be a bit complex and difficult for the child, so the figure of the adult is essential to carry them out and that the result is a success. For this we must accompany the minor at all times, motivating and encouraging him to continue improving, we can not demand at any time. You have to give it your time until you achieve total control and mastery that will make you ready to begin the writing stage.
You can read more articles similar to Graphomotor in children. 12 easy games to start typing, in the category of On-Site Writing.