Children learn to read and write with the help of teachers at school, but parents also have an important role since we can reinforce this task from the family home. How to teach a child to read at home? How can we reinforce reading? 22 exercises and activities to teach children to read at home.
What are the precursors of reading learning? At what age are children expected to develop these skills? There are three skills that are essential to predict success in reading development and whose absence or difficulty alerts us to the detection of difficulties in the acquisition of reading (dyslexia).
- Phonological awareness
It is the ability to recognize, identify and manipulate the elements of oral language. It is a basic metalinguistic skill that supports the learning of reading and it has been shown that its poor development is associated with an impoverished reading development. There are different levels of phonological awareness, each with a level of complexity:
- Rhyme or alliteration. It consists of discovering that two words share the same group of sounds at the beginning or at the end of the word. Between the ages of 3 and 4, children acquire this ability.
- Syllabic Awareness. It is the ability to operate with the segments of words (syllables), children achieve this ability around 4 years.
- Phonemic awareness. It refers to the ability to operate with the units that make up the spoken chain (phonemes). At 4 years old children can recognize the initial sounds of words that begin with a vowel and at 5 they can recognize initial sounds of words that begin with a consonant.
- Letter recognition
It is the ability to name the letters and associate them with their sound (how they sound). At 3 years they already begin to recognize the letter of their name, at 4 years the vowels and at 5 years they already recognize some consonants.
- Spontaneous writing
It is when the child is able to spontaneously write a word. Even if it is the first letter or some of that word. It is expected that a child between 4 and 5 years old can do it.
From the point of view of phonological awareness, rhyming with children is an excellent resource.
1. Test to make up rhymes with names of family and friends, for example, Simón-Jamón, or take one of your child's favorite nursery rhymes, remove part of the challenge and complete the verses.
Lola the cow
Lola the cow
Has a head
And has _________
2. Another activity that he proposes to carry out are the rhyme memtest, that is, put together pairs of rhymes to put together a memory game, for example, truck-button or cat-duck.
As for working on syllabic awareness, I want to teach you three types of games that I play with my children at home and with my patients at home.
3. The rabbits jump
We become rabbits that must jump according to the number of syllables a word has. Ex: pe-lo-ta, the rabbit must jump 3 times.
4. How many syllables does it have?
We put numbers from 1 to 4 on the floor or wall and we draw cards with images that we must associate with the number corresponding to its number of syllables.
5. Word detectives
We must find words hidden within others. Example: What word is hidden inside… Ball (hair), shoe (duck) and butterfly (mass).
Then, I will list attractive proposals around the phonemic awareness that you can work with the children at home.
6. Fishing for letters
We can arrange letters on the table, put magnets on it and with a fishing rod, take out each letter, then we must say words that begin with that letter. It is important to highlight the sound. Ex: MMMM / Mono.
7. Initial phoneme lotuses
Make a cardboard with pictures of different words and associate with the initial phoneme.
8. Secret words. We must guess the words decomposed by sounds. Ex: PAN. Ex: PPPPPP AAAAA NNNN
9. What word is left if we change the first sound? Ex: PALA change the PPPPP for the MMMM: BAD.
10. Work words with a specific phoneme. Eg: PPPPP (hair, puma, leg etc): 'A boat is coming loaded with….
11. The dance of the chairs. A letter is attached to each chair and when I sit down I must say a word that begins with that letter.
12. Tuttti frutti oral. I say words that start with a certain letter orally for each category (animals, foods, fruits and vegetables, colors, people's names).
And now touch the letter recognition, that we will do with four very interesting proposals for children.
13. We draw letters with whatever comes to mind. With play dough, noodles, matchsticks, foam or paint. You can also spread flour or polenta on a tray and make different strokes that the child must recognize and if he is encouraged he can also copy them.
14. We sing the alphabet. We spell the alphabet in different versions: like a turtle (we say it slow), like a rocker (we say it fast), with echo AAAAA BBBBB, CCCC (I stretch the sound).
15. Box with mystery letters. We put letters made of eva rubber or another material in a box and with my eyes covered I must recognize what letter it is.
16. I see I see of letters. We say a letter, for example, p, and we must look inside the house for a word that has that letter. We can search posters, pictures, magnets, etc.
Writing It is closely related to the child's ability to learn to read little by little, so I want to propose the following home exercises.
17. We print family photos or draw and write names. I can help by saying the sound of each letter AAA NNNN AAAA.
18. Make a free drawing and write the name of each picture below.
19. Follow directions. We draw a letter dotted with arrows and the child must follow the direction of the line.
20. Trace letters with your finger, with marker, in the air, on the partner's back, on the blackboard, on the floor with chalk.
21. A game of hangman. At first it begins with short words known to the child or with his name.
22. Do crossword puzzles. The child must decipher two words that have a letter in common. One is arranged horizontally and the other vertically. Word clues will be given orally.
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